Blackjack History

Blackjack is one of the popular casino games under the category of card games. The Blackjack game is also known as 'twenty-one, 'Vingt-en-un and Pontoon in different parts of the world. Blackjack is popular among the casino players due to the opportunity to win the game by utilizing gambling skills and the card counting prospects. The objective of this card game is to obtain a total close to twenty one without exceeding the number 21. The player will loose the game in case the sum of the numbers displayed in the cards goes over 21 which is termed as the 'bust, 'according to the blackjack jargon. During a bust situation, the dealer can take the bet of the player.

French Origin

Blackjack game has its roots in France and is believed to have originated from the popular French card games like Chemin de Fer and French Ferme. During the era 1700 AD, the game was popular at French casinos, which later migrated to the United States during 1800 AD. Initial versions of blackjack were played at French casinos under the name Vingt En Un which means 21, in French. The latest blackjack game evolved from Vingt En Un with minor variations. There are a few minor differences in the rules between Blackjack and Vingt en Un. In Vingt en Un, only the dealer was given the privilege to double. Unlike the modern blackjack game, the players have to bet after each round in Vingt en Un. The ideal card combination of Vingt En Un consists of an Ace of the Spades along with a Jack which lead to the English term 'Black jack. '

Similar Cards games

There were many card games played in different countries which had similarities with Blackjack. A popular Italian game by the name Seven and a Half is one among them. This game is played with face cards and the cards with the digits 7, 8 and 9. The King of diamonds represents a wild card which can be used as a substitute card. The objective of the game is to achieve seven and half points through one hand. The cards of 7, 8 and 9 have the value of one point respectively where the face cards carry half point value. The term 'bust'in Blackjack game originated from this Seven and a Half game. The bust situation arises when the player exceeds seven and a half points.

Popularity of Blackjack in US

After the French revolution, the game has migrated to North America from Europe. The Blackjack game is now a favorite among the professional gamblers in the United States. The huge gambling potentials underlying in the game converted Blackjack into a popular casino game among the gamblers. New variations in the blackjack strategies were introduced to improve the winning odds of the game. Gambling was legalized in the United States in 1931 which lead to the formation of Las Vegas. A scientific study was conducted on the game by Roger Baldwin and his associates during 1953 which was in fact a milestone in the history of blackjack game. Statistical theories were explored during the study to enhance the prospects of the game. The findings of the research were made available to the public by the research crew under the title 'Optimum strategy in Blackjack'in 1956. More sophisticated methodologies of Blackjack strategies were launched by Professor Edward O. Thorp. In his research, new calculating systems and machines were used to explore the game. The literature titled 'Beat the Dealer'was published by Thop, in 1962. In this book, the blackjack card counting systems are explored remarkably.

Computer simulations of Blackjack game

Professor Edward O. Thorp employed computer skills for performing statistical analysis, there by creating a simulation model named Monte Carlo simulation. According to the analysis, 10's and Ace available in the deck brings advantage to the players while 5's and 6's left in the deck brings advantage to the dealers. This findings lead to the development of latest card counting techniques in blackjack games. The players can afford to bet high if they have 10's and ace in the deck. Similarly, the presence of higher numbers of 5's and 6's is an indication to bet lower.

Today, Blackjack is a popular casino game in the US, Canada, Europe, Australia and many other countries in the world. The availability of Blackjack through online casinos brings exciting earning prospects for online gamblers.


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